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The Egyptian pyramids' findings prove that chess was played 4000 years ago. Findings that chess was also played in China, Mesopotamia, and Anatolia have emerged due to archaeological excavations carried out at different times.
The discovery of chess pieces, which were found to belong to the Kushan Turks living here and to be from the 150th century A.D., during the excavations carried out in today's Turkmenistan, brings forward claims that chess was first played by the Kushan Turks and was taken to India by them.
The first written documents about chess are M.S. 3.-4. Indian Ruler who lived in the centuries II. Sanskrit texts were written during the time of Chandragupta. In these texts, the game's name is referred to as 'Çaturanga.' It is thought that the rules of the game took their final form in the Punjab region of India in the 600s, and there are claims that chess began to be played under the name 'Sat-RanÇu' in China in the same century.
It is thought that stones similar to chess pieces were found in Dervazintepe (100 A.D.), the capital of the Kushan State. In some neutral sources, it is reported that chess was brought to India by the Kushan Turks. Chess pieces were found in the excavations in 1972 in the ancient fortress from the 2nd century in Southern Uzbekistan. Russian chess pieces expert Linder says they may not be chess pieces, but he thinks he can be the chess pioneer. The ruins found in the ancient castle bring chess history forward more than is acceptable.
From the 1850s, chess tournaments with strong players began to be organized. The first world chess championship match was played between two strong players of the time, Steinitz and Zukertort. W. Steinitz became the first official world chess champion by winning the match with ten wins, five draws, and five losses. Steinitz is also considered the father of the concept of systematic chess playing.
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